Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) has emerged as a non-contact method for monitoring vital signs, revolutionizing the way we approach health monitoring.

However, as with any technology, understanding its limitations and accuracy is crucial for effective application. This article examines the challenges and advancements in rPPG measurements, specifically in the context of Shen.AI’s SDK.

The rPPG Technology

Shen.AI’s technology leverages rPPG, which captures blood volume changes in the skin using advanced computer vision algorithms. This method allows for the estimation of vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate without direct contact​​. Such a non-invasive approach is particularly valuable in the current healthcare context, where minimizing contact is often necessary.

Challenges in rPPG Measurement

The accuracy of rPPG measurements can be influenced by various factors, including environmental conditions, subject demographics, and technical aspects of the measurement process itself. Two critical factors affecting rPPG accuracy are lighting and stability. For instance, Shen.AI’s engineers have developed algorithms for stabilization and normalization to widen the spectrum of conditions under which accurate measurements can be taken​​.

However, despite these advancements, rPPG methods are subject to biases due to environmental conditions and subject demographics. Datasets often used for developing and testing these methods, such as BP4D and Multi-Pie, tend to lack diversity in subject skin tones and age, and are usually collected under optimal laboratory conditions​​.

Accuracy and Limitations in Diverse Conditions

A study on the biases in rPPG methods reveals that while rPPG methods show agreement with ground truth measurements to some extent, they also exhibit variability. For instance, the mean difference between pulse rates measured by rPPG methods and ground truth was found to be approximately 2%, with a variability of about 15%​​. This variability is significant and can be attributed to the features present in the dataset, such as environmental lighting changes, head movements, and facial marks or headgear, which can lead to incorrect pulse rate prediction​​.

Shen.AI SDK: Enhanced Accuracy and Application

In the context of blood pressure measurement, Shen.AI SDK adheres to the same principles as traditional blood pressure monitors. However, the SDK has been significantly improved to provide more accurate and reliable measurements. Shen.AI’s approach involves continuous measurement over 60 seconds to yield an average value, acknowledging that blood pressure can fluctuate significantly over short intervals​​.


While rPPG technology, as implemented in Shen.AI SDK, offers a promising non-invasive method for health monitoring, understanding its limitations and working towards minimizing biases are crucial for its effective application. Future developments and research should focus on enhancing the accuracy of these measurements, especially across diverse demographics and in varying environmental conditions.